About Mangalore
Local Languages : Tulu: Kudla, Kannada: Mangaluru, Konkani: Kodial, Beary: Maikala

Mangalore is the chief port city of the Indian state of Karnataka. It is located about 350 kilometres (217 mi) west of the state capital Bangalore. Bound by the Arabian Sea and the Western Ghat mountain ranges, Mangalore is the administrative headquarters of the Dakshina Kannada (formerly South Canara) district in south western Karnataka.

Dance Mangalore derives its name from the local Hindu deity Mangaladevi. It developed as a port on the Arabian Sea – remaining, to this day, a major port of India. Lying on the backwaters of the Netravati and Gurupura rivers, Mangalore is often used as a staging point for sea traffic along the Malabar Coast. The city has a tropical climate and lies on the path of the Arabian Sea branch of the South-West monsoons. Mangalore's port handles 75% of India's coffee exports and the bulk of the nation's cashew exports. Mangalore was ruled by several major powers, including the Kadambas, Vijayanagar dynasty, Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas, Hoysalas, and the Portuguese. The city was a source of contention between the British and the Mysore rulers, Hyder Ali and Tippu Sultan. Eventually annexed by the British in 1799, Mangalore remained part of the Madras Presidency until India's independence in 1947. The city was unified with the state of Mysore (now called Karnataka) in 1956.

Mangalore is demographically diverse with several languages, including Tulu, Konkani, Kannada, and Beary commonly spoken, and is the largest city of Tulu Nadu region. The city's landscape is characterized by rolling hills, coconut palms, freshwater streams, and hard red-clay tiled-roof buildings. In an exercise carried out by the Urban Development Ministry under the national urban sanitation policy, Mangalore was placed 8th cleanest city in the country. In Karnataka it is 2nd after Mysore.


Etymology
Diety Prayed : Mangaladevi, Premaladevi

Mangalore was named after the local Hindu deity Mangaladevi, the presiding deity of the Mangaladevi temple. According to local legend, Matsyendranath, the founder of the Nath tradition, arrived in the area with a princess from Kerala named Parimala or Premaladevi. dietyHaving converted Premaladevi to the Nath sect, Matsyendranath renamed her Mangaladevi. After her death, the Mangaladevi temple was consecrated in her honour at Bolar in Mangalore. The city got its name Mangaladevi temple from the Mangaladevi temple. One of the earliest references to the city's name was made in 715 CE by the Pandyan King Chettian, who called the city Mangalapuram. The 14th-century Arabian traveler Ibn Battuta referred to Mangalore as Manjarur in his chronicles. The city is also called Mangaluru, a reference to Mangaladevi (the suffix uru means town or city). During the British occupation in 1799, Mangalore (anglicized from Mangaluru) stuck as the official appellation. However, according to Mangalorean Historian George M. Moraes, the word "Mangalore" is the Portuguese corruption of Mangaluru.

Mangalore's diverse communities have different names for the city in their languages. In Tulu, the primary spoken language, the city is called Kudla meaning junction, since the city is situated at the confluence of the Netravati and Phalguni rivers. In Konkani, Mangalore is referred to as Kodial. The Beary name for the city is Maikala, meaning wood charcoal, an attribution to the early practice of producing charcoal from wood on the banks of the Netravati river.


History

The area that is now Mangalore has been mentioned in many ancient works of Hindu history. In the epic Ramayana, Lord Rama ruled over the region, while in the epic Mahabharata, Sahadeva, the youngest of the Pandavas, governed the area. Arjuna, the hero of Mahabharata, also visited the area when he travelled from Gokarna to Adur, a village near Kasargod. Mangalore's historical importance is highlighted by the many references to the city by foreign travellers. Cosmas Indicopleustes, a Greek monk, referred to the port of Mangalore as Mangarouth. Pliny the Elder, a Roman historian, made references to a place called Nitrias, while Greek historian Ptolemy referred to a place called Nitra. Ptolemy's and Pliny the Elder's references were probably made to the Netravati River, which flows through Mangalore. Ptolemy also referred to the city as Maganoor in some of his works.

In the third century BCE, the town formed part of the Maurya Empire, ruled by the Buddhist emperor, Ashoka of Magadha. The region was known as Sathia (Shantika) during the Mauryan regime. From second century CE to sixth century CE, the Kadamba dynasty ruled over the region. From 567 to 1325, the town was ruled by the native Alupa rulers. The Alupas ruled over the region as feudatories of major regional dynasties like the Chalukyas of Badami, Rashtrakutas, Chalukyas of Kalyani, and Hoysalas. Mangalapura (Mangalore) was the capital of the Alupa dynasty until the 14th century. The city, then an important trading zone for Persian merchants, was visited by Adenese merchant Abraham Ben Yiju. The Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta, who had visited the town in 1342, referred to it as Manjarun, and stated that the town was situated on a large estuary. By 1345, the Vijayanagara rulers brought the region under their control. Later, the Jain Kings and the Muslim Bangara Kings ruled the town as feudatories of the Vijayanagar Empire, and brought the town firmly under an efficient and centralised administration. In 1448, Abdul Razak, the Persian ambassador of Sultan Shah Rukh of Samarkand, visited Mangalore, and was amazed at a glorious temple he saw in the city, en route to Vijayanagara. The Scottish physician Francis Buchanan who visited Mangalore in 1801, Mangalore was a rich and prosperous port with flourishing trading activity.

Rice was the grand article of export, and was exported to Muscat, Bombay, Goa and Malabar. Supari or Betel-nut was exported to Bombay, Surat and Kutch. Pepper and Sandalwood were exported to Bombay. Turmeric was exported to Muscat, Kutch, Surat and Bombay, along with Cassia Cinnamon, Sugar, Iron, Saltpeter, Ginger, Choir and Timber.

European influence in Mangalore can be traced back to 1498, when the Portuguese explorer Vasco Da Gama landed at St Mary's Island near Mangalore. In 1526, the Portuguese under the viceroyship of Lopo Vaz de Sampaio succeeded in defeating the Bangara King and his allies and conquered Mangalore. The trade passed out of Muslim hands into Portuguese hands. In the mid-16th century, Goud Saraswat Brahmins and Roman Catholics from Goa migrated to Mangalore as a result of Goa Inquisition. In 1640, the Keladi Nayaka kingdom defeated the Portuguese and ruled the town until 1762. The Portuguese were allowed to have trade relations with Mangalore. In 1695, the town was torched by Arabs in retaliation to Portuguese restrictions on Arab trade.

Hyder Ali, the de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore, conquered Mangalore in 1763, consequently bringing the city under his administration until 1767. Mangalore was ruled by the British East India Company from 1767 to 1783, but was subsequently wrested from their control by Hyder Ali's son, Tippu Sultan in 1783. The Second Anglo–Mysore War ended with the Treaty of Mangalore, signed between Tippu Sultan and the British East India Company on March 11, 1784. After the defeat of Tippu at the Fourth Anglo–Mysore War, the city remained in control of the British, headquartering the Canara district under the Madras Presidency.

The city was largely peaceful during British rule, with urban and infrastructural developments being affected during the period. Mangalore flourished in education and in industry, becoming a commercial centre for trade. The opening of the Lutheran German Basel Mission in 1834 brought many cotton weaving and tile manufacturers to the city. When Canara (part of the Madras Presidency until this time) was bifurcated into North Canara and South Canara in 1860, Mangalore was transferred into South Canara and became its headquarters. South Canara remained under Madras Presidency, while North Canara was transferred to Bombay Presidency in 1861. The enactment of the Madras Town Improvement Act (1865) mandated the establishment of the Municipal council on May 23, 1866, which was responsible for urban planning and providing civic amenities. Roman Catholic missions to Mangalore like the Italian Jesuit "Mangalore Mission" of 1878 played an important role in education, health, and social welfare. The linking of Mangalore in 1907 to the Southern Railway, and the subsequent proliferation of motor vehicles in India, further increased trade and communication between the city and the rest of the country.

As a result of the States Reorganisation Act (1956), Mangalore (part of the Madras Presidency until this time) was incorporated into the dominion of the newly created Mysore State (now called Karnataka). Mangalore is a major city of Karnataka, providing the state with access to the Arabian Sea coastline. Mangalore experienced significant growth in the decades 1970–80, with the opening of New Mangalore Port on May 4, 1974 and commissioning of Mangalore Chemicals & Fertilizers Limited on March 15, 1976. The late 20th century saw Mangalore develop as a business, commercial and information technology (IT) centre, although the traditional red tile-roofed houses are still retained in the city.


Geography and Climate
Location : 12°52′N 74°53′E / 12.87°N 74.88°E / 12.87; 74.88 Summer and Winter : 27 °C (81 °F) to 34 °C (93 °F), Humidity: Approx78%

Mangalore is located at 12°52′N 74°53′E / 12.87°N 74.88°E / 12.87; 74.88 in the Dakshina Kannada district of Karnataka. It has an average elevation of 22 meters (72 ft) above mean sea level. It is the administrative headquarters of the Dakshina Kannada district, the largest urban coastal center of Karnataka, and the fourth largest city in the state. Mangalore is situated on the west coast of India, and is bounded by the Arabian Sea to its west and the Western Ghats to its east. Mangalore city, as a municipal entity, spans an area of 132.45 km2 (51.14 sq mi). Mangalore experiences moderate to gusty winds during day time and gentle winds at night. The topography of the city is plain upto 30 km (18.64 mi) inside the coast and changes to undulating hilly terrain sharply towards the east in Western Ghats. There are four hilly regions with natural valleys within the city. The geology of the city is characterized by hard laterite in hilly tracts and sandy soil along the seashore. The Geological Survey of India has identified Mangalore as a moderately earthquake-prone urban centre and categorized the city in the Seismic III Zone.

Mangalore lies on the backwaters of the Netravati and Gurupura rivers. These rivers effectively encircle the city, with the Gurupura flowing around the north and the Netravti flowing around the south of the city. The rivers form an estuary at the south-western region of the city and subsequently flow into the Arabian Sea. The city is often used as a staging point for traffic along the Malabar Coast. The coastline of the city is dotted with several beaches, such as Mukka, Panambur, Tannirbavi, Suratkal, and Someshwara. Coconut trees, palm trees, and Ashoka trees comprise the primary vegetation of the city.

Mangalore has a tropical climate; summer and winter months experience similar temperate conditions, with average temperatures ranging from 27 °C (81 °F) to 34 °C (93 °F). Humidity is approximately 78% on average, and peaks during May, June and July. The maximum average humidity is 93% in July and average minimum humidity is 56% in January. Under the Köppen climate classification, Mangalore has a Tropical monsoon climate and is under the direct influence of the Arabian Sea branch of the South-West monsoon. It receives about 90% of its total annual rainfall within a period of about six months from May to October, while remaining extremely dry from December to March. The annual precipitation in Mangalore is 4,242.5 millimetres (167 in).

The most pleasant months in Mangalore are from December to February, during which time the humidity and heat are at their lowest. During this period, temperatures during the day stay below 30 °C (86 °F) and drop to about 19 °C (66 °F) at night. This season is soon followed by a hot summer, from March to May, when temperatures rise as high as 38 °C (100 °F). The summer gives way to the monsoon season, when the city experiences more precipitation than most urban centres in India, due to the Western Ghats. Rainfall up to 4,000 millimetres (157 in) could be recorded during the period from June to September. The rains subside in September, with the occasional rainfall in October.


Water Resources
Major Rivers : Nethravathi, Swarna, Sita, Chakra, Varahi, Kumara Ohara, Payaswini, Gurupura, Shambhavi

The Coastal Districts are blessed with many rivers and rivulets originating in the Western Ghats and flowing to the Arabian Sea. There is one vented dam in Thumbe, Bantwala Taluk, which provides drinking water to Mangalore City. Open wells are the main source of drinking water. For agriculture farmers depend on rain, water from the river and ponds and wells. Nethravathi, Kumara Ohara, payaswini, Gurupura and Shambhavi rivers are some the important rivers in Dakshina Kannada. Swarna, Sita, Chakra, Varahi and Kubja are the major rivers of Udupi District. Kavery, Lakshmana Theertha and Hattihole are the more important rivers in the Kodagu District. Chandragiri, payaswini, Mogral and Sheere are the major rivers in the Kasaragod District.

The Netravati River (or Nethravathi River) has its origins at Gangamoola in Kudremukh in Chikkamagaluru district of Karnataka, India. This river flows through the famous pilgrimage place Dharmasthala and considered as one of the Holy rivers of India. It merges with the Kumaradhara River at Uppinangadi before flowing to the Arabian Sea.The Netravathi river joins Arabian sea at south of Mangaluru city. This river is the main source of water to Bantwal and Mangalore. The Netravathi railway bridge is one of the known bridges which serves as the gateway to Mangalore.


Flora
Major Flora : Oipterocarp , Rosewood , YamarlYemani , Toon/Red cedar,Kokko/Siris ,Ceylon ebony, Sandalwood

In the Western Ghats of this region namely Udupi, Dakshina Kannada and Kodagu districts there are many summits with elevations over 1200 m above msl, like Kodachadri (1340 m), Kumara Parvatha (1715 m), Kudremukh (1892 m), Thadiandamol (1745 m), Brahmagiri (1608 m), etc. While a scrubby growth dominates the lowlands, the plateau supports in addition to scrub forests, moist deciduous or semi-evergreen forests which extend to the foot of the Ghats. The most luxuriant forests, namely the evergreen forests, occur on the Ghats, especially along its upper slopes which receive an annual rainfall of over 5000 mm. on its extreme west the region merges with the coastal belt where in addition to the strand vegetation beyond the high tide limit in some places mangrove vegetation is encountered in the estuaries. Physiographically, the area is mainly composed of a coastal belt (coastal lowlands), an undulating plateau and the mountain chains of the Western Ghats.

In the Western Ghats, which extends from Tapti in Gujarat to Kanyakumari in Tamil Nadu, there are about 4500 species of flowering plants, about a third of which are endemic. About a third of these endemics are threatened and several are believed to be either extinct or on the verge of extinction. The coastal districts of Oal(shina Kannada and Udupi are the habitat of more than 200 of these endemic species. About 60 endemic species of plants are found in Kodagu district. Since these plants are prone to become endangered the Western Ghats along with its coastal vegetation is considered to be ecologically very sensitive.

The Western Ghats region is also a rich storehouse of useful plants. Some of them provide food articles; others form raw materials for medicine, shelter, clothing, paper, agricultural implements, etc. And others are indigenous plants of great beauty, colour and design to please our aesthetic sense. There are several timber-yielding plants like, oipterocarp (BanaSampa, Dhuma), Rosewood (Beete mara), YamarlYemani (Shivant), Toon/Red cedar (Canda garike, Kempu gandagin), Kokko/Siris (Bage), Ceylon ebony (Bili mara, Mal/ali), Asna/lndian laurel (Banapu, KarimatthO, the sandalwood tree (Candha, Sreegandha), Bogi, Hebbalasu, Honne/ Raktha honne, Chiruve, Andipunaru, Nagasampige, etc.

The thorny bamboos (Bidiru) and the reed bamboos (Vaate bidiru) provide raw materials for mat- and basket-making. Species of cane (Bettha) which are in great demand for making cane furniture and handicrafts are well represented in this region. There are also plants like cinnamon! Dalchini, Lavangapathre) and pepper (Karimenasu) yielding spices and condiments, sandalwood (Candha, Sreegandha), lemon grass (Anthibalai), Indian Patchouli (Pacche tene) and Nagasampige which yield essential oil, Alexandrian laurel (HOnne, Kalhonne), Mahwa/Mahua (Hippe mara) and Kussum (Jendala chakota, Sagade kendala) with oil seeds, Cassie (Kastoori jaill, Mattipaul Whup), Kokko/Siris (Bage), White dammar (Bilidupa) and Malabar kino (Benga) yielding gums and reSins, Kitul (BaganiYeendl which is tapped for toddy and sago, the silk cotton tree (Kempu booruga), the soapnut tree (Aratala), Nux-vomica (Kasaraka, Kayen the commercial sources of strychnine and scores of other medicinal plants. Plants with edible fruits include wild mangoes, Emblic (Bettada nellikai, Amalaka).


Economy
Major Companies : Mangalore Chemicals and Fertilizers Ltd. (MCF), Kudremukh Iron Ore Company Ltd. (KIOCL), Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals Ltd. (MRPL), BASF, and ELF Gas

Mangalore's economy is dominated by the agricultural processing and port-related activities. The New Mangalore Port is India's ninth largest port, in terms of cargo handling. It handles 75% of India’s coffee exports and the bulk of its cashew nuts. During 2000–01, Mangalore generated a revenue of 33.47 crore (US$ 7.6 million) to the state. The city's major enterprises include Mangalore Chemicals and Fertilizers Ltd. (MCF), Kudremukh Iron Ore Company Ltd. (KIOCL), Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals Ltd. (MRPL), BASF, and ELF Gas.

The leaf spring industry has an important presence in Mangalore, with Canara Workshops Ltd. and Lamina Suspension Products Ltd. in the city. The Baikampady and Yeyyadi Industrial areas harbour several small-scale industries. Imports through Mangalore harbour include crude oil, edible oil, LPG, and timber. The city along with Tuticorin is also one of two points for import of wood to South India.

Major information technology (IT) and outsourcing companies like Infosys, Wipro, and MphasiS BPO have established a presence in Mangalore. Plans to create three dedicated I.T. parks are underway, with two parks (Export Promotion Industrial park (EPIP) at Ganjimutt and Special Economic Zone (SEZ) near Mangalore University) currently under construction. A third IT SEZ is being proposed at Ganjimutt. Another IT SEZ, sponsored by the BA group, is under construction at Thumbe and spans 2 million square feet (180,000 m²).

The Mangalore Chemicals & Fertilizers Limited is a major industry in Mangalore that was commissioned in 1976.The Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) plans to invest over 35,000 crore (US$ 7.95 billion) in a new 15 million tonne refinery, petrochemical plant and power, as well as LNG plants at the Mangalore Special Economic Zone. Indian Strategic Petroleum Reserves Ltd, a special purpose vehicle under the Oil Industry Development Board, is developing strategic crude oil reserves in Mangalore and two other places in India. Out of the proposed 5 million metric tonnes per annum (MMTPA) storage, 1.5 MMTPA would be at Mangalore. According to an International edition of India Today (November 28 – December 4, 2006), Mangalore is the fastest growing non-metro in South India.

Corporation Bank, Canara Bank, and Vijaya Bank were the three nationalised banks established in Mangalore during the first half of the 20th century. Karnataka Bank, founded in Mangalore, was one of the largest banks to have not been taken over by the Government. The Mangalore Catholic Co-operative Bank (MCC Bank) Ltd. and SCDCC Bank were the scheduled banks established in Mangalore. The boat building and fishing industry have been core businesses in Mangalore for generations. The Old Mangalore Port is a fishing port located at Bunder in Mangalore, where a large number of mechanised boats anchor. The traffic at this port was 122,000 tonnes during the years 2003–04. The fishing industry employs thousands of people, their products being exported to around the region. Mangalorean firms have a major presence in the tile, beedi, coffee, and cashew nut industry, although the tile industry has declined due to concrete being preferred in modern construction. The Albuquerque tile factory in Mangalore was India's first red roof tile manufacturing factory. Cotton industries also flourish in Mangalore. The Ullal suburb of Mangalore produces hosiery and coir yarns, while beedi rolling is an important source of revenue to many in the city.


Demographics

Mangalore has a population of 398,745 per the 2001 census of India. The urban area has a population of 538,560, while the metropolitan area has a population of 419,306 (2001). According to World Gazetteer, Mangalore's estimated population in 2008 was 431,976, making it the 101st most populous city in India. As of the same extrapolations, the World Gazetteer estimated the population of the Mangalore urban area to be 603,269, making it the 61st most populated urban area in India. The number of males was 200,234, constituting 50% of the population, while the number of females were 198,511. The decadal growth rate was 45.90. Male literacy was 86%, while female literacy was 79%. About 6% population was under six years of age. Mangalore's literacy rate is 83% – significantly higher than the national average of 59.5%. Birth rate was 13.7%, while death rate and infant mortality rate were at 3.7% and 1.2% respectively. The Mangalore urban area had 32 recognised slums, and nearly 22,000 migrant labourers lived in slums within the city limits. According to the Crime Review Report (2006) by the Dakshina Kannada Police, Mangalore registered a drop in the crime rate in 2005, compared with 2003.

The four main languages in Mangalore are Tulu, Konkani, Kannada, and Beary with Tulu language being the mother tongue of the majority. Malayalam, Hindi, Marathi, Urdu and English are also spoken in the city. A resident of Mangalore is known as a Mangalorean in English, Kudladaru in Tulu, Kodialghar in Catholic Konkani, Kodialchi or Manglurchi in Goud Saraswat Brahmin Konkani, Manglurnavaru in Kannada, and Maikaaltanga in Beary. Hinduism is the largest religion in Mangalore, with Mogaveeras, Billavas, Ganigas and Bunts forming the largest groups. Kota Brahmins, Shivalli Brahmins, Goud Saraswat Brahmins (GSBs) and others form the remaining sections of Hindus. Christians form a sizable section of Mangalorean society, with Konkani-speaking Catholics, popularly known as Mangalorean Catholics, accounting for the largest Christian community. Protestants in Mangalore known as Mangalorean Protestants typically speak Kannada. Most Muslims in Mangalore are Bearys, who speak a dialect called Beary bashe. There is also a sizeable group of landowners following Jainism.


Culture
Dance Forms : Yakshagana, Pilivesha, Karadi Vesha, Paddanas

Many classical dance forms and folk art are practised in the city. The Yakshagana, a night-long dance and drama performance, while Pilivesha (literally, tiger dance) a folk dance unique to the city is performed during Dasara and Krishna Janmashtami. Karadi Vesha (bear dance) is another well known dance performed during Dasara. Paddanas (Ballad-like epics passed on through generations by word of mouth) are sung by a community of impersonators in Tulu and are usually accompanied by the rhythmic drum beats. The Bearys' unique traditions are reflected in such folk songs as kolkai (sung during kolata, a valour folk-dance during which sticks used as props), unjal pat (traditional lullaby), moilanji pat, and oppune pat (sung at weddings). The Eucharistic procession is an annual Catholic religious procession led on the first Sunday of each New Year.

Most of the popular Indian festivals are celebrated in the city, the most important being Dasara, Diwali, Christmas, Easter, Eid, and Ganesh Chaturthi. Kodial Theru, also known as Mangaluru Rathotsava (Mangalore Car Festival) is a festival unique to the Goud Saraswat Brahmin community and is celebrated at the Sri Venkatramana Temple. The Catholic community's unique festivals include Monti Fest (Mother Mary's feast), which celebrates the Nativity feast and the blessing of new harvests. The Jain Milan, a committee comprising Jain families of Mangalore organises the Jain food festival annually, while festivals such as Mosaru Kudike which is part of Krishna Janmashtami festival is celebrated by the whole community. Aati a festival worshiping Kalanja, a patron spirit of the city occurs during the Aashaadha month of Hindu calendar. Festivals such as Karavali Utsav and Kudlostava are highlighted by national and state-level performances in dance, drama and music. Bhuta Kola (spirit worship), is usually performed by the Tuluva community at night. Nagaradhane (snake worship) is performed in the city in praise of Naga Devatha (the serpent king), who is said to be the protector of all snakes.


Bhuta Kola - Bhutaradhane (Bhuta Worship)
Dance Forms : Yakshagana, Pilivesha, Karadi Vesha, Paddanas

Bhuta worship, or spirit worship is a form of worship, special to Tulunadu. Bhuta means of the past, the bygone, meaning thereby the spirit of the ancestors. This is a form of hero-ancestor worship. Of course of spirit worship and possession cults are found in many ancient cultures. Yet the Bhuta worship is distinct in form and detail. Nearest to it is the Theyyam tradition of Kerala. Bhuta worship has a known history of about eight centuries. But its origin must be much older. It is not only a living tradition, but is getting revised with much vigour and growing interest. It is a complex with beliefs, rituals, rules of worship, apparatus, literature, music and theatrical elements. It is a vast and interesting world.

Parba (Parva), Kola, Nema, Bali, Kendaseve are the varieties of Bhuta worship. Among them Parva is the simple form of worship, with offerings at the ‘Bhuta Stone’. Kola, Nema, Jatre, Bali are all varieties of kola with differences in detail. Kola means ‘wearing a costume’ or ‘playing a role’. This form is a detailed performance where the Bhuta appears in possession through a medium person. The performance has definite stages right from the inviting stage to the finale. That involves the use of verse singing, story telling, promises and solutions to various complaints, prayers and problems, use of music and dances etc.

About four hundred Bhutas are being worshipped. Some of the prominent names among them are - Guliga, Panjurli, Koti-Chennaya (Baidyerlu), Raktheswari, Ullalthi, Kodamanithaya, Malaraya, koddhabbu, Orthe, Chikku, Haiguli, Vishnumoorthi, Annappa, Nayer, Jumadi, Koragathaniya etc.

Bhutas are believed to be living in the Sanas (Stana - sacred place). Alade, Gudi (various types of shrine - temples) and in specific stones kept under trees and in trees also. The masks, weapons and statues are also in way the abodes of the Bhutas.The Bhutas are believed to be having powers of helping, showing grace, trouble making etc. The nature, the powers, likes and dislikes of Bhutas vary. Bhutas have been playing an important role in the administration and in the folk judicial system.

Kola is the chief form of Bhuta worship. It is a ritualistic theatre. It involves devotion, inspiration, entertainment and is an important form of community life. Usually it is an annual ceremony. It takes place on fixed dates as per the solar year. It may be at the family level, village level or at the level of a group of villages. It proceeds in various stages like cutting of a plantain bunch, (Gone kadiyuvudu), a cock fight ritual (Koligoota), arrival of the Bhandara, (Bhandara ilisuvudu), hoisting the flag (Dhvajarohana or kodi), taking the veelya (formal invitation to start), make up, wearing the bells (Gaggara), grand meals (offering Barane), wearing the big hallow like back-gear, possession and dance, speaking by the spirits, giving protection - word (abhaya) etc. The costume and make up have distinct style and the Bhuta worship presents a very good costume make up model. The make up, costume, dance, forceful background music, the dialogues, possession - all together create awe and trans like environment. The head of the family or the community or a person assigned, has to speak to the Bhuta on various matters concerning the rituals. The dialogue follows a broad pattern. The language used in these conversations and by the Bhutas in their independent wordings (Nudi) is poetic and stylised.

The songs sung in the Kola performances are called ‘Pad-danas’ (prayers or ‘Pad’-songs). They are long narrative epics. They are an interesting literary genre containing the birth and geographical spread of a Bhuta, its exploits, miracles, greatness etc. The paddanas are sung only at certain stages of a Kola performance. They include many historical and cultural details, along with the story of a Bhuta. The Kola has stylistic differences and differences in duration depending upon the concerned Bhuta, the level of performance and area.

Bhuta worship is an intimate part of the life of the people. It is a forum for social contact, community life, celebration of festival and entertainment - all in one.


Yakshagana
Dance Forms : Yakshagana, Pilivesha, Karadi Vesha, Paddanas

One of the theatre forms generally described as folk but possessing a strong classical connection is the Yakshagana. It is a typical folk form of drama in this region, just as Kathakali is in neighbouring Kerala. Unlike the stylised costumes and masks of Kathakali, Yakshagana is a true people's theatre, commonly staged in the paddy fields at night and the themes are the same as all over India, the Ramayana, the Mahabharata and mythological tales from the Puranas. In predominantly rural areas with little or no transportation, Yakshagana enjoys immense popularity and its exponents are honoured just as great stage artistes are.

Although the name signifies the music of celestial beings, Yakshagana is an amalgam of the sky with the earth. here is both mystery and robustness about this form in which singing and drumming merge with dancing, and words with gestural interpretation, and players clad in costumes of striking colour and contours. It is the cherished cultural possession of the coastal districts of Karnataka.

Dr. K.S. Karanth is the foremost authority on Yakshagana and has been working on all its aspects, amely--dance, music, and literature, since 1930. He has led the way to a deep and systematic study of this art form. He has spent decades travelling to remote villages within Karnataka to inspect and study every Yakshagana manuscript, the earliest going back to A.D. 1651. With his fine literary judgement and aesthetic sensibility, he has traced the changing trends in the performance of Yakshagana. He has interacted with hundreds of Yakshagana artistes to find out what customs in training and interpretation had prevailed earlier and had fallen into disuse and deserved to be resuscitated. He has put together his findings in the shape of two standard books Yakshagana-Bayalata (1958) in Kannada, and Yakshagana in Kannada and English (1975). The present volume is a revised edition of the earlier book, with additional material and illustrations.


Food Facts
Food Forms : Rice Ball, Dosa, Fish Cury, Kori Rotti (dry rice flakes dipped in gravy), Bangude Pulimunchi (silver-grey mackerels), Beeja-Manoli Upkari, Neer dosa (lacy rice-crêpes), Boothai Gasi, Kadubu, and Patrode

Neer dosa, a variant of dosa,and Pundi (Rice Ball) are native to Mangalore. Mangalorean cuisine is largely influenced by the South Indian cuisine, with several cuisines being unique to the diverse communities of the city. Coconut and curry leaves are common ingredients to most Mangalorean Curry, as are ginger, garlic and chili. Mangalorean Fish Curry is a popular dish throughout India. The Tulu community's well-known dishes include Kori Rotti (dry rice flakes dipped in gravy), Bangude Pulimunchi (silver-grey mackerels), Beeja-Manoli Upkari, Neer dosa (lacy rice-crêpes), Boothai Gasi, Kadubu, and Patrode.

The Konkani community's specialities include Daali thoy, beebe-upkari (cashew based), val val, avnas ambe sasam, Kadgi chakko, paagila podi, and chana gashi. Vegetarian cuisine in Mangalore, also known as Udupi cuisine, is known and liked throughout the state and region. Since Mangalore is a coastal town, fish forms the staple diet of most people. Mangalorean Catholics' Sanna-Dukra Maas (Sanna – idli fluffed with toddy or yeast; Dukra Maas – Pork), Pork Bafat, Sorpotel and the Mutton Biryani of the Muslims are well-known dishes. Pickles such as happala, sandige and puli munchi are unique to Mangalore.

Shendi (toddy), a country liquor prepared from coconut flower sap, is popular.


Education
Major Education Board: Karnataka Board, CBSE, ISCE, UGC, AICTE, NAAC

Mangalore education system has great potential. Being a part of the state of Karnataka, with well developed educational system, this city has a well developed network of schools and colleges. They have been imparting knowledge since the last few decades. The scenario of the educational system at Mangalore can be analyzed from its good literacy rate as well as the growing potential in the educational arena. The city has got a large number of schools, colleges, universities and other private institutes.

The schools of Mangalore are affiliated to either of the following three boards for secondary and higher secondary board examinations:

• Karnataka Secondary Education Examination Board

• Central Board of Secondary Education, New Delhi

• Indian School Certificate Examinations, New Delhi

The colleges and universities of Mangalore are recognized by:

• University Grants Commission

• AICTE, New Delhi

• Karnataka State Government

• NAAC, New Delhi

The recent development that has been witnessed in the educational structure of Mangalore is the emphasis on computer literacy. Both schools and colleges in Mangalore have introduced compulsory training on computer and IT related courses so as to achieve the goal of spreading computer literacy among all.

These days various other means of imparting knowledge have been introduced in the educational system of Mangalore. They are vocational training, distance education, online education, etc. With all these developments, it is sure that Mangalore education has got a very prospective future.


Literature
Major Language KANNADA, TULU

The region around Mangalore is traditionally known as Tulunaadu. Tulu is a regional language in this multilingual area and it is the symbol of the cultural identity of the people. The state languages of Karnataka and Kerala , viz. Kannada and Malayalam, surround Tulu. In Tulu region, social dialects of Kannada (Havyaka, Kota, Gowda etc.), Konkani and Marathi (two Aryan languages), Byaari, a Muslim dialect, are the spoken languages. Tulu is the mother tongue of a majority of people and a link language for the rest. It cuts across the boundaries of caste and religion. Hindus, Muslims, Christians and Jains use Tulu as their language of communication. The native speakers of Tulu use TUlu at home, Kannada in schools and other languages according to the demands of the situation. Although Kannada is the language of education, many professional people, coming from outside to work or study in this region, find it necessary to learn Tulu.

But Kannada is the literary language of Dakshina Kannada. The first major literary work in Kannada is Rathnakaravarni's Bharathesha Vaibhava of 16th century A.D. This is an epic which expounds Jaina philosophy in tranSition, where the two realms, secular and sacred, are interwoven. Publication of writings in Kannada and Tulu began in the first half of the 19th century with the advent of Basel Missionaries in South Canara. It was the renaissance period of Kannada literature and dawn of Tulu literature. In the last decades of the 19th century Muddana set a new trend of writing prose critique and narratives in Kannada. His Shree Ramashwamedham is a critique of an ancient epic with a modern outlook. Indira Bai, the first social novel in Kannada (1899), written by Gull.lady Venkat Rao was published in Mangalore. Gulvady Venkat Rao, Bolar Babu Rao. Annciji Rao were the pioneers of Kannada social novels who fought for social reformation which was continued by Dr. Shivarama Karanth, the major novelist of the 20th century. Karanth has written more than 50 novels. He was a dramatist, a folk theatre expert, and a science writer. He brought the coastal culture and nature together in his novels.


The Tulu Language

Tulu is a language spoken in the area situated on the West Coast extending from the northern part of the undivided Dakshina Kannada district (now this part belongs ot the Udupi District) of Karnataka state up to the Kasargod Taluk (on the northern part) of the Kerala State. In ancient times this region was called Tulunaadu (the Tulu country) and the people whose mother tongue is Tulu are called the Tuluvas.

Tulu language belongs to the Dravidian group of languages that are spoken mainly in South India. Linguists enumerate about 24 Dravidian languages spread mainly in South India and some parts of North India and also in a few areas of Pakistan. Among a couple of dozens of Dravidian languages a few have evolved into major ones and have produced innumerable literary works for the last two thousand years. These works can stand par with other literary works of the world both in quality and quantity. Such developed languages of the Dravidian family are called as Major Dravidian languages. They are mainly five in number viz. Tamil, Kannada, Telugu, Tulu and Malayalam. Thus attention may be drawn upon the fact that Tulu language is also one among the five major Dravidian languages. These five major Dravidian languages together are called as ‘Pancha Dravida Bhashegalu’.

Unfortunately the significance of the Tulu language was note recognised until Rev. Caldwell brought out his monumental work called ‘A comparative Grammar of the Dravidian or South Indian Family of Languages’. In this prestigious work he justifies that ‘Notwithstanding its want of a literature, Tulu is one of the most highly developed languages of the Dravidian family.’ It was this appraisal that opened the eyes of the lingusts towards Tulu and made them to give due respect and recognition to it as one of the important and developed Dravidian languages.

Tulu is spoken by about 2.5 million people. The major number of Tulu speaking population is found, in dense, in the coastal area of Karnataka state. Equally good number of Tulu speakers can be seen all over India and also in other parts of the World, mainly in Gulf countries and in U S A.


The Tulu Script

Tulu, one of the major Dravidian languages, also possesses a script. This script is generally called the Tulu Script. But a strong misconception prevails among a major number of people regarding the existence and prevalence of this Script. They, due to want of knowledge, hole the opinion that Tulu script never exists and the so called Tulu script is not Tulu one but Malayalam script. Though the subject of Tulu script is found to be controversial, it is very clearly proved by scholars, who are will versed in Tulu and Malayalam language and literature, that it is the Tuluvas who contributed a script for Malayalam which has no script until the Tulu Brahmins’ arrival in Kerala. In fact, the present Malayalam script is nothing but the modified Tulu script. The Tulu Brahmins were wri;ting the Vedic ‘mantras’ in Tulu script. When they went to Kerala for performing ‘poojas’ in temples they took this script to Kerala and used to write everything in this script. As Malayalam has been evoled as an independent language almost one thousand five hundred years after Tulu bifurcated from the Proto-Dravidian, it is foolish to argue that age-old Tulu language borrowed a script for its own from Malayalam language, which is very younger to Tulu.

The Tulu inscription and the ancient literary works in Tulu that are available now were all written down in this script. We have, at present, before us the ‘Tulu Mahabharata’ ascribed to the 13th century, the ‘Tulu Bhagavata’ and ‘Kaveri’ belonging to the 17th Century and a prose work ‘Tulu Devimahatme’ ascribed to the 15th Century and a few other literary works in Tulu. All these have been written down in Tulu script. Apart from this, until recently the Tulu Brahmins used to write the Vedic mantras in this script only.

But unfortunately, the Tulu script is gradually vanishing. Predominance of the Kannada language, lack of public instruction in Tulu language etc. are some of the reasons for the Tulu script to lag behind. It is to be noted that the introduction and establishment of the modern printing press by the German missionaries in Mangalore in the 19th Century and their trial of printing the Tulu writings in Kannada script is the major reason for the Tulu script to go behind the scenes. The Kannada script ably occupied the place of the Tulu script by the first half of the 19th Century. At present, Tulu writing is carried exclusively in the Kannada script only.


The People

The coastal districts of Udupi, Dakshina Kannada and the hilly district of Kodagu have diverse languages, rituals and customs. The tourists are treated to a rich variety of not only scenic beauty but also to a dazzling mosaic of culture. The predominantly agrarian community has found relaxation in the multiple rituals, festivals and carnivals after all the hard work on the fields. The male buffaloes used in agriculture were made to run races during the off season. This became the famous folk sport Kambala.

Similarly emerged the Koli Anka, the cockfight, designed by those who were engaged in poultry farming. Though the two sports still remain popular, with many rituals added to it, they have also earned the disapproval of animal lovers. This region comes into colour and festive mood in November and it runs through the month of May in temples, Bhootalayas and at homes.

Though Kannada is the official language of Karnataka, this region has multiple mother tongues such as Tulu, Konkani, Byaari and a variety of Kannada dialects. While Tulu is widely used in Udupi, Mangalore, puttur and Bantwal, Sullia has a flavour of more than one Kannada dialect. The hilly Kodavas speak their own Kodava language, which seems to be a mixture of Tulu, Malayalam, Tamil and other local dialects. Kodavas are celebrated for their valour and courage, each family having at least one member in the country's army. Kodavas have their own unique, culture, customs and rituals. In spite of this rich combination of local culture and languages that are strongly interwoven, Kannada remains the language of communication.

These coastal districts are transforming from an agrarian to an Industrial pattern. All the customs, costumes, rituals, etc., associated with the old profession and culture too is undergoing change. Against this background the Heritage village which is being set up at Pilikula is meant to preserve the original flavour of this culture.

Mangalore has high literacy level, low rate of infant mortality, high life expectancy, health status, number of villages connected by roads, telecommunication facility are all a symbol of progress. The high sex ratio of 1019 females to 1000 males, availability of good higher education, better employment opportunities and an honourable family status for the women indicates better status of women. Educational institutions have almost equal strength of female students.

Women work and earn like men. Apart from their equal or a higher role in agriculture, women's income is supplemented by beedi-rolling and fishing industry. The matrilineal system of family has also contributed realty for their higher status both within the family and in the society.


Media
Newspaper, TV, Internet Media

The name of Dakshina Kannada District in the map of Kannada Journalism is an indelible one. The very dawn of Kannada Journalism was In Dakshina Kannada.lt is the centre of many 'firsts' in Kannada Journalism.

The first printing press was started here. It was because of the printing press that many magazines and books got published here. Mangalore amachara was started in 1843. Since then Dakshina Kannada has made major impact in the media till now. From the days of stone typefaces to newspaper, TV, internet media, using Satellite Technology Dakshina has Ilad its predominant position intact till date. Dakshina Kannada District was the area including of Dakshina Kannada, Udupi and Kasaragod Districts during the British reign. Since then and till now the information available suggests that around 200 periodicals were published from this region. This list is not complete yet. Even if we take Into account only Dakshina Kannada District, we find that it is the centre where from editions of all major English and Kannada newspapers are published. Except for Bangalore, only Dakshina Kannada can boast of so many editions of news-papers. AS in the print media Dakshina Kannada Ilas gained reputation in the modern media inventions like radio, TV, Internet. Compared to other Districts of the state, Dakshina Kannada has responded quickly to the growth of diverse media. NOW the District has the largest number of the cable channels compared to any other District In the State these channels provide the most professional news and entertainment programmes. Unique to Dakshina Kannada are its wall magazines. They materialise on t he walls of the colleges. These are spring boards for Journalism. These wall magazines provided a platform to the students to write articles, draw cartoons, make rep orts and make a proper layout for all of them even when pursuing academic studies. The beneficiary of this was not just journalism of Dakshina Kannada but also the Kannada Journalism as a whole. The profession of Journalism in Dakshina Kannada is extensive and varied. The daily Mangalooru Samachara was started by Germany based Basel Evangelican Mission. The mission brought the linguistic expert, Herman Mogling to Mangalore. While engaged in propagating Christianity, Mogling also ventured into Journalism. As a result Mangalooru Samachara was started on 1st July 1843, using lithographic printing. Though it was allegedly started for propagating Christian religion, the news content reveals that it was had the aim of blocking the spread of false news, keeping the society till the very end. The four pages magazine which was published once in 15 days reached Mysore, Tumkur, Bellary, Hubli, Sirsi and Honnavar even in those days. It gave birth to a desire for magazines in these cities and towns. After 16 editions, with an intention not to confine the magazine to Mangalore and to take it to all Kannada speaking people, the publication of the magazine was shifted to Bellary and the name was changed from Mangaloor Samachara to Kannada Samachara.

Herman Mogling was instrumental in the publication of Kannada Varthe, vaagvadayini, Krista Sabha, Basel Mission Sabha Patra (1863), Vichithra Varthamana Sangraha (1963), Nyaya sangraha (1965), Chirista Sabha patra (1869), Subhodini (1871). Five decades after the publication of Mangalooru samachara, the locals made entry into the field of Journalism and publishing of Magazines. Kannada Kesari (1885) by Anantha Rao of Manjeshwara was the first magazine to be started by the locals. Sarvodaya Prakashana (1887) by B. Narasinga Rao, Sudarshan (1887) by Bailoor Rama Rao, Suvasini (1900) by Bolara Vittala Rao, and other spread the fragrance of Kannada Journalism further.

Another important aspect was by renowned Kannada literatures launch of magazines and literary magazine. The eminent literary persons of Dakshina Kannada like Panje Mangesh Rao, M.N. Kamath, Muliya himmappayya, Dr. Shivaram Karanth made their entry into journalism.

M.N. Kamath's Bhodhini (1913), Ananda {1916l, Muliya Thimmappayya's Kannada Kogile (1916), Dr. Shivarama Karanth's Vasantha (1923) and Vlcharavani (1950 - with M.B. MarakinD are some of the important magazines of their period.

Many magazines helped to propagate the fire of freedom struggle. Swadeshabimani (1967), Kantheerava (1919), Navayuga (1921), Rastra Bhandu (1 928), Prabhata (1935), Thilaka Sandesha (1918), Satyaagraha (1921), Navayuga (1921) helped to ignite the spirit of freedom.

Dakshina Kannada also provided fertile soil for the development for Tulu and Konkani Journalism. Rakhno (1938), Mithr (1939), Kanik (1955), Zhelo (1956), panchkadal (1967) are some of the famous Konkani magazines. Many English magazines were also started in Dakshina Kannada. Among them the first was Indian Magazine (1903) followed by Mangalore Sunday News (1927), B.M. Press Magazine (1928), The Friend of the Poor (1932) and Pigmie (1954) were the major ones.

Among the dailies Navabharatha (1941) and Udyavani (1970) were t he on s t hat laid a firm foundation. In 1954 an evening news paper called Sandhya Deepa was started. Another major step taken by Dakshina Kannada Journalism is launching magazines devoted to agriculture. This trend started with Krishi Loka (1967) and Raitha Vani and continued with Adlke pathrike and Sujatha. It is from Dakshina Kannada that magazines exclusively for fisherman, children, Vishwakarma community, teachers, Labourers and Vedas have emerged.

Dakshina Kannada is fertile area for the media. It has adopted all kinds of media and emerged as a dominant media centre of India. Now it is the district that boasts of many websites and record number Of Cable channels. It is also the district where all major English and Kannada dailies having edition centres. Apart from that it is the centre of Radio Broadcasting and the centre of many satellite channels.


Transport
Transportaion By Mean of : Road, Rail, Air and Sea

Mangalore's location makes it accessible by all forms of transport: road, rail, air and sea. It is notable here that a native of Mangalore U. Srinivas Mallya (a Member of the Indian Parliament) was instrumental in getting the National Highway system, the Mangalore Airport and the New Mangalore Port to Mangalore. In his tribute there is a statue of him along NH 17 near the Kadri Park, and another at the entrance of the New Mangalore Harbour.


Roads
Major Higways : NH-17, NH-4, NH-13, NH-48

Three National Highways pass through Mangalore connecting the city to the rest of the country. NH-17, which runs from Panvel (in Maharashtra) to Edapally Junction (near Kochi in Kerala), passes through Mangalore in a north-south direction, while NH-48 runs eastward which connects it to the state capital Bangalore via NH-4. NH-13 runs north-east from Mangalore to Sholapur, and a state highway connects it to the city of Mysore passing through the hill town of Madikeri.

Local Public Transport busroute

Mangalore's city bus service is operated by private operators, with routes covering the full extent of the city and beyond. There are two distinct sets of routes for the buses, with the city routes being covered by city buses, and the intercity routes being covered by service and express buses. Service buses essentially touch all towns and villages on the intercity route, while express buses reach their destination with very limited or no stops in between.

Another mode for local transportation is the autorickshaw. Meter is introduced in all autorickshaws plying inside the city and the suburbs and the customers are charged based on the exact cost displayed on the meter. However charges are 1.5 times the displayed reading between 9pm to 6am.

Long Distance Bus Routes

Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) runs the long distance bus services from Mangalore to other parts of the state. The Mangalore-Bangalore route is the most lucrative route and is equally served by public & private players.

The longest bus route served is the Mangalore - Ankola - Hubli - Belgaum - Pune - Mumbai bus route run by a number of private players and KSRTC. The journey is about 22 hours by normal buses & 16 hours by Volvo Buses.


Railways
Railway Connected Cities : Mumbai, Hassan, Coimbatore, Shoranur

The Mangalore Railway Station used to be the last station connecting Mangalore to the state of Kerala in the south and to the rest of the country. While the British had left behind an extensive railway network when they left India, the stretch between Mangalore - Mumbai, and Mangalore - Hassan had never been connected. There are many trains connecting Shoranur and Coimbatore.

A metre gauge railway track was built through the Western Ghats in the east, connecting Mangalore with Hassan. While this provided a very picturesque journey, it was not very successful, and the tracks were removed several years later to be replaced with a broad gauge line. However, the conversion project was halted for several years. It has since resumed and some sections of this track are now functional. The broad gauge track connecting Mangalore to Bangalore via Hassan is open for freight traffic since May 2006. While the movement of passenger traffic was supposed to start after December 2006, the inaugural train was eventually flagged off from Mangalore Central railway station for Bangalore only on 8 December 2007 by Union Minister for Railways Laloo Prasad Yadav. Mangalore is also connected to Chennai through the Southern Railway.

When India gained independence, Mangalore was not connected to Mumbai by rail. The railway network established before independence terminated at Mangalore. Since then there had been a strong need to connect Mangalore to Mumbai and hence the Konkan Railway came into being. The project was completed in 1998 and since then the travel time to the north of the country has come down considerably.


Sea

The Mangalore Harbour provides a connection by sea to the rest of the world. Currently dry, bulk and fluid cargos are handled by the New Mangalore Port, providing an important gateway to the state of Karnataka. It is also the station for the Coast Guard. This modern artificial harbour 10 km north of the town is now India's ninth largest cargo handling port.


Air

Mangalore International Airport formerly known as Bajpe Airport, is a domestic and international airport serving the coastal city of Mangalore, India. The airport was opened on 25 December 1951 as the Bajpe Aerodrome when Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru arrived on the maiden flight on a DC-3 Dakota aircraft. The airport is located near Bajpe, around 15 km north-east of the city centre. Several daily flights connect Bajpe with most major cities in southern and western India as well as many major cities in the Middle East. Until 2005, its small 1,600 m (5,249 ft) runway meant that it could only handle Boeing 737-sized aircraft; slightly larger aircraft can now be handled.The operation of international flights started in 2006 with Air India Express flying to Dubai.